World nuclear power welcomes "China core"
China's nuclear power has become an important force in the world energy market.The director of China nuclear society, a member of the Chinese academy of engineering, Li Guanxing said nuclear power in China has entered the new period of large-scale development, China is becoming the center of nuclear power development, and provided strong impetus for the global nuclear power development.In the third generation, there are AP1000 and EPR imported from abroad, and there are also self-developed huasong 1 and CAP1400.Among them, the world's first high temperature gas cooled reactor demonstration project, which is independently developed and developed in China, has attracted worldwide attention due to its fourth generation nuclear safety features.
The world's first high temperature gas cooled reactor
The project is going well
Huaneng shandong shidao bay nuclear power co., LTD., China huaneng group company holding enterprises, built by huaneng group, the nuclear group and tsinghua university building, joint venture projects to have built of tsinghua university, 10 mw high temperature gas cooled reactor experiment, on the basis of planning and construction of a 200000 mw high temperature gas cooled reactor nuclear power unit.
As one of the major national science and technology projects, the high temperature gas cooled reactor demonstration project is under construction at the end of 2012 and is still under construction.Reporter saw in huaneng shandong shidao bay nuclear power co., LTD., office buildings, staff canteen, dormitory, training center, integrated warehouse on duty, emergency road, port has been put into use, such as more than 40 meters high reactor building high above, tree-lined in nuclear power plants.
Starting in the 1960s, Britain, the United States and Germany began developing high-temperature gas cooled reactors.From the mid-1970s, the research institute of tsinghua university began the research and development of high temperature gas cooled reactor.At the end of September 2004, the international atomic energy agency (iaea) conducted an experiment on the safety verification of the 10-megawatt high temperature gas cooled reactor experiment.
The experimental results show that, under the severe accident, including the loss of all under the condition of cooling capacity, do not take any human and the machine's intervention, the reactor can keep safe state, and the remaining heat discharge.The former President of the American nuclear society, professor mike duckke, spoke highly of the safety experiment: "the technology and safety level of the high temperature gas cooled reactor in China has been at the forefront of the world."
The reactor pressure vessels at the core of the two units at the shidao wan nuclear power plant have been installed in 2016.The pressure vessel is about 25 meters high and weighs about 610 tons. It is independently developed and manufactured by Shanghai electric nuclear power equipment co., LTD., which has realized the localization of the pressure vessel equipment of the superlarge reactor.
According to MAO wei, party secretary and general manager of huayeng shandong shidao wan nuclear power co., LTD., the pressure vessels, main helium fans and evaporators of the high temperature gas cooled reactor are realized domestically.
Shidao bay nuclear power plant is located in the east coast of shandong peninsula, the most eastern end, good site condition and geological structure is stable, no tsunami history record, the surrounding population density is low, no migration population, traffic condition, water condition is good, the electric power line is convenient, is a large nuclear power base of the excellent domestic has the development construction one of coastal sites.It also plans to build six nuclear power units with a total capacity of more than 8 million kilowatts.
High temperature gas cooled reactor is subject to international attention
The high temperature gas cooled reactor is located in the current nuclear power stack, which can be seen from the classification below.
The first generation (GEN - I) nuclear power plant is an early prototype of power plant, namely from 1950 to 1960, the early stage of the development of light water reactor nuclear power plant, such as the United States in the port of pressurized water reactor, dresden, boiling water reactor and the magnesium Knox graphite gas-cooled reactor, etc.
The second generation (GEN - Ⅱ) nuclear power plant is in late 1960 and early 1990, the first generation of nuclear power plant based on the development and construction of large commercial nuclear power plants, such as Canada he pile of pressurized water reactor, the Soviet union, etc.Most of the world's nuclear plants now belong to the second generation of nuclear power plants.
The third generation (GEN - Ⅲ) refers to the advanced light water reactor nuclear power plant, which began in late 1990 to 1990 to run the plant.The third generation of nuclear power plants adopt standardized, optimized design and safer non-active safety systems, such as advanced boiling water reactor, system 80 +, AP1000, EPR and other European pressurized water reactors.
Fourth generation (GEN - Ⅳ) is for the development of nuclear power plant, its goal is to reach the level of practical application in 2030, the main feature is high efficiency coal-fired power plants is quite (and natural gas), good safety and waste production amount is small, and can prevent nuclear proliferation.
According to introducing, and the third generation of nuclear power plant adopts the pressurized-water reactor technology, high temperature gas cooled reactor nuclear power station has good inherent safety, can guarantee the reactor core melt does not occur in any accident and radioactive release, fourth-generation nuclear power system nuclear safety goals are met.The system adopts the traditional steam cycle, the power generation efficiency can reach more than 40%, is the current generation most efficient nuclear reactor.
At present, the world's major nuclear states are actively developing high temperature gas cooled reactor technology for generating and producing hydrogen.The 2005 U.S. energy bill required the department of energy to develop and demonstrate the technology and economic viability of using high-temperature gas cooled reactor technology to generate electricity and/or hydrogen production by 2021.France's farmatong is also actively conducting research on high-temperature air cooled reactor technology and has participated in the bidding for the high temperature air cooled reactor project in the U.S. state of Idaho.Japan has built a high temperature engineering experiment to study the high temperature gas cooled reactor technology and high temperature hydrogen production technology.Russia and the United States jointly developed the study of using high temperature gas cooled reactor (Pu).South Africa has already begun work on building a high-temperature gas cooled reactor.
Or to be an important supplement to world nuclear energy
With the support of the national energy administration, China huaneng group has carried out the commercial promotion prospect and economic research of high temperature gas cooled reactor with the construction of demonstration power station.Preliminary research results that: high temperature gas cooled reactor system with inherent safety, simple, small, modular, high efficiency, wide application way and address unique competitive advantages such as strong adaptability, and has potential economic competitiveness.Because the core outlet temperature is high, the high temperature gas cooled reactor is especially suitable for large-scale hydrogen production.The high temperature gas cooled reactor can also be used in most fields of process heat application, including coal gasification and liquefaction, direct reduction of steel-making, heavy oil thermal mining, oil shale extraction, etc.
According to the specific can be divided into the recent promotion roadmap assumption, ready to start phase (during the period of "much starker choices-and graver consequences-in"), medium scale development stage (2021-2021), forward leaping development stage (after 2031) three steps.
MAO wei believes that the high temperature gas cooled reactor will bring three benefits to our country and world energy:
One is to adapt to the country's need to actively develop nuclear power.The modular high temperature gas cooled reactor is inherently safe and efficient. The power of the single module reactor is small, and the combination of multiple modules can form the power station of different scales.Flexibility on site selection and grid requirements.Large pressurized water reactors will play a leading role in China's nuclear power market.The modular high temperature gas cooled reactor can be used as a supplement to the large pressurized water reactor to meet the strategic needs of the country to actively develop nuclear power.
The second is to adapt to the country's future demand for hydrogen and hot technology.International oil prices are expected to rise further as oil demand further increases and recoverable reserves fall, and the international political and economic battle over oil supplies intensifies.It is a new field of nuclear energy utilization to provide high temperature heat source and realize large-scale hydrogen production.There is also a demand for high temperature process heat in heavy oil thermal mining, coal gasification liquefaction, steelmaking and chemical process.The modular high temperature gas cooled reactor technology can be one of the main technologies to meet the future demand of nuclear power generation.
Third, the need to adapt to the country's advanced nuclear power technology.The international competition for advanced nuclear power technology research and development is fierce.In modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor technology, our country has been in the world, such as from reactor experiment technology to commercial reactor technology has increased, thus to realize independent innovation in the field of advanced nuclear power technology.China has signed with Saudi Arabia, the united Arab emirates and other countries and regions in the high temperature gas cooled reactor project memorandum of cooperation, and several provinces and cities in the domestic 600000 mw high temperature gas cooled reactor pre-project, booster high-temperature gas-cooled reactor commercialization of the project.
"Demonstrative project of high temperature gas cooled reactor has the characteristics of the fourth generation of security, to promote China's nuclear power technology, the implementation of nuclear power to go out and make China from nuclear power into the nuclear power has important strategic significance."Mao Wei said.(journalist teng jun xiao haichuan)